Local Area Network- LAN

Characteristics of LAN 

  • LAN is a network within a geographical location 
  • Usually within a room/building
  • Faster than WAN
  • Usually a broadcast system
  • Will be owned by the same organization
  • Ethernet, FDDI, and Token ring are the most popular LAN technologies

 

 

Topologies

A network topology is the pattern of links connecting pairs of nodes of a network. A given node has one or more links to others. And also the links will seem in a very form of totally different shapes. The network topology is set solely by the configuration of connections between nodes.

  1. Bus
  2. Ring
  3. Star
  4. Mesh

 

1. Bus Topology

 

All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus/linear networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet systems use a bus topology. Uses thin coaxial cable.

 

Advantages of Bus Topology

  • Easy to connect a computer or peripheral.
  • Comparing star topology, Its requires less cable length.
  • Inexpensive to install.
  • Works well for small networks.

 

Disadvantages of Bus Topology

  • Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
  • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
  • Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
  • No longer recommended.

 

2. Ring Topology

 

In a ring topology, we can see the closed loop. That is all device are connected each other. So that each device is connected directly to two other devices. One on either side of it. No beginning or end (a ring in fact), ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install. But they offer high bandwidth and can span a large distance.

 

Advantages of the Ring Topology

  • Data packets travel at great speed
  • No collisions
  • Easier to fault find
  • No hub/switch required

 

Disadvantages of the Ring topology

  • Requires the cable than a bus
  • A break in the ring will bring it down.

 

3. Star Topology

All devices are connected to a central hub/switch. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub.

 

Advantages of the Star Topology 

  • Easy to install and wire.
  • In a star topology, when connecting or removing devices, there are no disruptions to the network.
  • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
  • Easy to add devices as the network expands.
  • Once cable failure does not bring down the entire network.
  • A switch provides centralized management.
  • Lost of support as it is the most used.

 

Disadvantages of the Star Topology

  • Requires more cable length than a linear/bus topology.
  • If the hub fails the entire network fails.
  • More expensive than linear bus topologies.

 

4. Mesh Topology

Each node is connected to every other code. Allows communication to continue in the event of a break in any one connection. It is fault tolerant.

 

Advantages of the Mesh Topology

  • Improves fault tolerance 

 

Disadvantages of the Mash Topology

  • Expensive.
  • Difficult to install.
  • Difficult to manage.

 

 

Standards

Various organizations have been involved in the development or promotion of standards data and computer communications. The most important organizations are as follows.

 

Internet Society

 

The Internet Society (ISOC) is a professional membership society with more than 150 organizational and 6000 individual members in over 100 countries. It provides leadership in addressing problems that confront the longer term of the internet and is that the organization homes for the teams chargeable for internet infrastructure standards, together with the internet engineering task force (IETF) and the internet architecture board (TAB). All of the RFCs and internet standards are developed through these organization.

 

IEEE Standards

 

The institute of electrical and electronics engineers a professional organization that among other activities, defines standards in a number of fields within computing and electronics, including networking and communications. IEEE standards are the predominant LAN standards used today throughout the industry. Many protocols are commonly known by the reference number of the corresponding IEE standard.

 

IEEE 802: the TEE (Institute of electrical and electronics engineers) 802 

LAN/MAN standards committee develops local area network standards and metropolitan area network standards. The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, token ring, wireless LAN, bridging and virtual bridged LANs.an individual working group provides the focus for each area.

 

ISO

 

ISO, that means the International Organization for Standardization. It is a worldwide federation and of a national standards body. It operates over 140 countries, one from each country. ISO is an NGO that promotes the event of standardization and connected activities with a read to facilitating the international exchange of products and services and to developing cooperation within the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO’s work results in international agreements that are published as international standards.

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